e is correct:
To use your example say the posseidon takes 11 hits:
First it rolls 6 dice gettting: 2,4,3,1,5,5 - at least one die rolled 2+ so the hit is stopped the one fails and is removed from the interceptor pool this turn.
It now rolls its 5 remaining dice: 3,4,2,2,6 at least one die rolled 3+ so this second hit is also stopped but the 2s fail and are reomved.
It now rolls 3 dice: 5,4,4 at least one rolls 4+ so the third hit is stopped. No dice failed this time.
It rolls 3 again: 6,5,4 at least one rolls 5+ so the fourth hit is stopped, the 4 fails though
It rolls 2 dice: 5, 2 neither dice make the 6+ needed so the 5th hit goes through.
For each of the remaining 6 hits and for every other hit suffered this turn the EA player gets one interceptor die now needing a 6 to stop the shot.
It should also be noted that you resolve fire from individual weapons batteries not whole ships. Interceptors MUST be used on weapons in the order they were fired (in the example you use for example, a sensible centauri player would fire his twin arrays first to soak up the interceptors leaving his double damage heavy arrays to hit the ship once its interceptors are down (fighters are also great for using up interceptors now they fire first